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区域化推进书香校园,“点灯人”推动全民阅读

2019-09-23 23:25 来源:39健康网

  区域化推进书香校园,“点灯人”推动全民阅读

  Eightetiquettevolunteersposeforaphotoatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng),2008showsJiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifangasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao;LowerphototakenonJune5,2018showsthecoupleasvolunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,inQingdao,eastChina,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Photo/Xinhua)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,guideatouristinWendengRoadinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,giveouthandbooksatMingxialuCommunityinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,gatheratMingxialuCommunityfortraininginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(3rdR)andhiswifeLianShifang(2ndR),volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,guidepassengersatabusstopinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)EtiquetteteacherLuMin(1stR)instructsvolunteersforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)Eightetiquettevolunteersforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitpracticeinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)MaritimepersonneluseadronetopatrolontheHongzeLakeinHuaianofeastChinasJiangsuProvince,May15,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/ChenLiang)AnagriculturaldroneworksinthefieldsinBeiguanVillage,LinzhangTownshipofnorthChinasHebeiProvince,April19,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/HuGaolei)AnagriculturaldronespraysintherapeseedfieldsinGulingVillage,JiujiangofeastChinasJiangxiProvince,March21,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/FuJianbin)Adronedeliversvegetablefromamodernagriculturalparktoane-commercewarehouseinWugongCountyofnorthwestChinasShaanxiProvince,April22,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/LiYibo)Arescuedronecapableofbroadcastingandissuingwarnings,patrolsaboveabeachareainSanyaofsouthChinasHainanProvince,May30,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/ShaXiaofeng)Visitorswatchademonstrationofadronetakingpicturesduringthe20thChinaBeijingInternationalHigh-techExpo,inBeijing,capitalofChina,June8,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/JuHuanzong)AfarmeroperatesadroneforfarmworkinthefieldsinZiboofeastChinasShandongProvince,March14,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/CuiLilai)

Eightetiquettevolunteersposeforaphotoatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng),2008showsJiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifangasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao;LowerphototakenonJune5,2018showsthecoupleasvolunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,inQingdao,eastChina,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Photo/Xinhua)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,guideatouristinWendengRoadinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,giveouthandbooksatMingxialuCommunityinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,gatheratMingxialuCommunityfortraininginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(3rdR)andhiswifeLianShifang(2ndR),volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,guidepassengersatabusstopinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)EtiquetteteacherLuMin(1stR)instructsvolunteersforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)Eightetiquettevolunteersforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitpracticeinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AviewofthestonesutrasatBangtuoMonastery,RangtangCounty,SouthwestChina’,000stoneslabsinscribedwithTripitakascriptures,whichweremadeintheMingandQingdynastiesbymorethan60masonsoveraperiodofnineyearsonanareaof598squaremeters,thelargestandbest-preservedstonesutrasintheworld.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)AviewofthestonesutrasatBangtuoMonastery,RangtangCounty,SouthwestChina,000stoneslabsinscribedwithTripitakascriptures,whichweremadeintheMingandQingdynastiesbymorethan60masonsoveraperiodofnineyearsonanareaof598squaremeters,thelargestandbest-preservedstonesutrasintheworld.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)AviewofthestonesutrasatBangtuoMonastery,RangtangCounty,SouthwestChina,000stoneslabsinscribedwithTripitakascriptures,whichweremadeintheMingandQingdynastiesbymorethan60masonsoveraperiodofnineyearsonanareaof598squaremeters,thelargestandbest-preservedstonesutrasintheworld.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)

  PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)(ECNS)--AcuisinegalaorganizedbytheShizuokaInternationalBusinessAssociationShanghaiOfficeandtheJapanCouncilofLocalAuthoritiesforInternationalRelations(CLAIR)atABCCookingStudiowasheldintheheartofBeijing,deputydirectoroftheShizuokaInternationalBusinessAssociationShanghaiOffice,saidtoparticipantsthatonlyinShizuokacouldvisitorsaccessthreeiconicsymbolsofJapanesetourismatonce--MountFuji,theShinkansenLineandcherryblossoms,,locatedincentralJapan,,includingJapan,apopularresortinallfourseasons,deservesmultiplevisits,,ithasthemostspahotelsamongJapan’anothercharminShizuoka,whichenjoysconvenienttransportationviatheShinkansenbullettrainthatlinksitinaboutanhourtoTokyoandNagoya,aswellasTomeiExpressway.

  (ECNS)--AcuisinegalaorganizedbytheShizuokaInternationalBusinessAssociationShanghaiOfficeandtheJapanCouncilofLocalAuthoritiesforInternationalRelations(CLAIR)atABCCookingStudiowasheldintheheartofBeijing,deputydirectoroftheShizuokaInternationalBusinessAssociationShanghaiOffice,saidtoparticipantsthatonlyinShizuokacouldvisitorsaccessthreeiconicsymbolsofJapanesetourismatonce--MountFuji,theShinkansenLineandcherryblossoms,,locatedincentralJapan,,includingJapan,apopularresortinallfourseasons,deservesmultiplevisits,,ithasthemostspahotelsamongJapan’anothercharminShizuoka,whichenjoysconvenienttransportationviatheShinkansenbullettrainthatlinksitinaboutanhourtoTokyoandNagoya,aswellasTomeiExpressway.ChildrenplayonasquareinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June3,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhangCheng)StudentsofamiddleschoolplayfootballinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AmangoeswindsurferinginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,May4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/ZhangCheng)CitizensposeforphotoattheOlympicParkinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)ChildrenpracticerollerskatinginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AmandoesexercisesataparkinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June3,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)AsailboatisseeninthewaterinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June4,(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/YinGang)

FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)

  Commercialexplorationofspacewillbecomeanunstoppabletrendasmorestrongprivatestart-upsenterthecommercialaerospaceindustryinChina,slaunchofFalconHeavy,aChineseindividually-fundedsatellitewaslaunchedlastweek,capableofoperatingi,atypeofminiaturizedsatellitemadeupofmultiplecubicunits,andwillbeusedtohelpmembersofthepublicobserveouterspace,accordingtoastatementfromChinaGreatWallIndustryCorp,whichprovidedthelaunchservice,ChinaNationalRadio(CNR)telliteLaunchCenterinnorthwesternChina,alongwiththemuchlargerZH1-thenationsfirstseismo-electromagneticsatellite,whichcanhelpscientistsbetterstudyearthquakes-aswellasfiveothersmallsatellitesliketheFMN1,engLun,chairmanofBeijing-basedVantoneHoldings,whospent5millionyuan($800,000)ndeducation,futuresatellitelauncheswillseektomakeprofits,lethepublict,JiaoWeixin,aspacescienceprofessoratPekingUniversity,toldtheGlobalTimesonWednesdaythatprivateChinesefirmshavelessinvolvementintheaerospaceindustrysincethey,ithastofirstgetapprovalfromtheauthorities,,midthedeepeningofmilitary-civilianintegration,WangYanan,deputyeditorofAerospaceKnowledgemagazine,,assomeofthemaregettingstronger,,theStateCouncil,Chinascabinet,formallyannounceditwouldallowprivatecompaniestoresearch,manufactureandlaunchaswellasoperatecommercialsatellites,,thegovernmentproposedin2015thestrategyofintegratingcivilianandmilitarycooperationintechnologytopromotethecountrysspaceprograms,whichhasledtotherapiddevelopmentofChinaelptheseprivatecompaniesgrowfaster,,fundingisamajorchallengeforthedevelopmentofdomesticspacecompanies,astheyhavetomakeenormousinvestmentsinresearchandmanufacturing,andittakesalongtimetoseeareturn,,andhundredsofmillionsforalargesatellite,soFengscaseisveryrare,sspacestart-upsarestillinthenascentdevelopmentstage,commercialexplorationofspaceisanunstoppabletrend,saidJiao,addingthatthecurrentnumberoflaunchbasesandrocketsdoesn,,,itwilllaunchitsfirstOS-Xrocket,whichisdesignedforsuborbitalflightsinordertoprovidehigh-altituderesearchandtestservices,followingas,LandSpaceTechnology,,LandSpacesignedacontractwithDenmark-basedsatellitemanufacturerGOMspace,becomingthefirstChinesecompanytodevelopitsowncommercialrocketsthatwillprovideservicestotheinternationalmarket.  

  FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)

  Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaoJianjun)Dancersperformduringalightshowandfireworksdisplayheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaoJianjun)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/DuYang)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/DuYang)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ShengJiapeng)Dancersperformduringalightshowandfireworksdisplayheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaoJianjun)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ShengJiapeng)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ShengJiapeng)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/DuYang)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhangYong)Alightshowandfireworksdisplayisheldtowelcomeguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,ShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhangYong)

  AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AviewoftheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)GuardsworkattheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewoftheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewoftheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)PolicecarsareseenneartheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)

  AteacherteachesstudentsbasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)AteacherteachesstudentsbasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)StudentspracticebasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)StudentspracticebasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)AteacherteachesstudentsbasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)

  AstaffmemberrepairsaculturalrelicatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang(C),thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,poseswithvolunteersattheopeningofitsrestorationhospitaltothepublicinBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)StaffmembersrepairculturalrelicsatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)AvolunteertalkstovisitorsaboutculturalrelicsrestorationatahospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)AstaffmemberrepairsaculturalrelicatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang,thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,meetswithvisitorstoarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang,thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,meetswithvisitorstoarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)

  (CNS),astate-levelnewsagencysponsoredandestablishedbyChinesejournalistsandrenownedoverseasChineseexpertsonOctober1,(),,,includingin-depthcoverage,featurestoriesandvisualcontent,withtopicssuchascurrentevents,art,lifestyle,(CNS)isnotonlyastate-levelnewsagencyspreadingnewsworldwide,butalsoaninternationalnewsagencywithsubscribersinTaiwan,HongKongandMacao,,formervicechairmanoftheStandingCommitteeoftheNationalPeoplesCongress,,therewereothermajorsponsorsandbuilders,suchasJinZhonghua,HuYuzhi,,awell-knownexpertoninternationalissues,,CNSwastheInternationalNewsService,,adatabaseofinforma(includingwritings,photosandspecialarticles)andamodernmethodofreporting(mainlythroughinternet,videosandSMS)providedtooverse,,HongKongandMacao,aswellasbranchesorreportstationsinTokyo,Bangkok,KualaLumpur,NewYork,Washington,LosAngeles,SanFrancisco,Vancouver,London,Paris,,andnewsreleasecentershavebeenestablishedinBeijing,,multi-levelandmulti-functionnewsreleasesystem,CNSprovidesallkindsofnewsandinformation,’,,1999,theheadquartersofCNSlauncheditsofficialwebsite,namedChinanews().ChinanewsisconsideredoneofChina’smostimportantonlinenewssources.Nine103-year-oldCadburychocolatebarshavebeendiscoveredamongthemementosofRichardBullimore,whoservn$2,600atauctiononJune5,2018.(Photo/VCG)Nine103-year-oldCadburychocolatebarshavebeendiscoveredamongthemementosofRichardBullimore,whoservn$2,600atauctiononJune5,2018.(Photo/VCG)Nine103-year-oldCadburychocolatebarshavebeendiscoveredamongstthemementosofRichardBullimore,whoservn$2,600atauctiononJune5,2018.(Photo/VCG)

  

  区域化推进书香校园,“点灯人”推动全民阅读

 
责编:
大参考 No.138
No.138

凤凰大参考独家系列策划

南沙岛礁建设报告:
做好岛礁速战速决之应对

作者:祁昊天 时间:2019-09-23
管南沙岛礁建设可令中国在海上拥有“千里之眼”,但要形成和维护这只珍贵之眼,并令之发挥前所未有的功用,需要从研究、设计、装备投入等各个方面付出极大心血,各种挑战也将很大。
VolunteersworkatthepresscenteroftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationQingdaoSummitinQingdaoCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June7,alistsfromhomeandabroadatthepresscenter.(Photo/VCG)VolunteersworkatthepresscenteroftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationQingdaoSummitinQingdaoCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June7,alistsfromhomeandabroadatthepresscenter.(Photo/VCG)VolunteersworkatthepresscenteroftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationQingdaoSummitinQingdaoCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June7,alistsfromhomeandabroadatthepresscenter.(Photo/VCG)VolunteersworkatthepresscenteroftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationQingdaoSummitinQingdaoCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June7,alistsfromhomeandabroadatthepresscenter.(Photo/VCG)VolunteersworkatthepresscenteroftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationQingdaoSummitinQingdaoCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June7,alistsfromhomeandabroadatthepresscenter.(Photo/VCG)

更要加以区别的是,相对于岛礁改扩建在平时能力的提高,评价战时的军事作用时,需要更多考虑岛礁群的地理、气候、战场环境约束以及不同作战任务的特殊需要。例如,岛礁战场以速战速决为主,对后方投送能力要求极高,如何做到游刃有余的保障就是一大考验。

凤凰大参考“南沙岛礁建设报告,在本章以兵棋推演验论证岛礁战场环境建设的各个环节所需。

在巴掌大的地盘上进行战场建设,面临四大挑战

由于岛礁群的地理、气候等天然特性,战场环境建设即便能够按计划部署展开,也会在平时与战时带来一些特殊的挑战。主要包括被动防御能力低下、海岛环境对装备维护和使用的挑战、岛礁群周边环境对作战的影响、后勤保障压力。

南海舰队地勤维护战机。

首先是防御能力较弱,在岛礁进行陆军火力常规部署的局限性非常大,部署本身便存在诸多困难,在防御作战时又面临缺乏纵深,无法进行阵地转移等困难,战损几率较之大陆或大型岛屿防御作战要大得多。

海上防御力量方面,驱逐舰与护卫舰的自持周期一般为45天以内,适合执行巡逻与即时支援任务。而若在长期危机的情况下,通过海上舰艇来对岛礁群进行轮流执勤保卫,其耗费将非常高,难以维持。特别考虑到南海冲突以突发、快速方式爆发的可能性极大,这种日常防御显然是不现实的。

第二,海岛环境本身对于战场建设和装备使用与维护具有挑战。

高温、高湿、高盐、高日照,在这种环境下,普通钢铁物件在缺乏特殊表面处理及有效外部设施保护时数天便会生锈。上岛装备需要很高的环境适应能力。

所有军事装备都依赖电子设备的有效运行,这便带来热损耗的问题。根据不同的耗散功率密度,电子器件的冷却系统都需要进行特殊设计。对于上岛设备来说,海水自然是成本最低、获取最方便的冷却介质。但是海水冷却系统的设计与制造需要考虑南海岛礁自身环境特点,如丰富的生物、泥沙与漂浮物,特殊措施如拦污设备与耐腐处理。不过,海岛环境的这些挑战倒不是不可克服的,只是加大了装备使用的相关各种成本,降低潜在作战效能。

第三,岛礁周边战场环境会对作战尤其是海战会造成特殊的影响。例如,反舰导弹远程打击是进行海上攻击的主要手段,但岛礁附近海区的复杂环境会降低攻击效果,对打击航路和雷达捕捉目标的能力都有影响。岛礁岸线曲折、礁石分布零乱,回波特性复杂,会影响导弹末制导雷达对预定目标的捕捉能力。而这还是不考虑人为战场环境改造中可能新增的专门干扰源。

因此,在岛礁附近海区作战便需要考虑岛礁作为依托和天然隐蔽屏障,这是一对利用与反利用的关系。

岛礁障碍为对海攻击航路和方向的限制很大,在岛礁扩建改造过程中,便有必要对未来岛礁周围可能冲突的敌我相对战位进行推演。中国在导弹航路规划方面已积累了不少经验,虽缺乏实战检验,但是在未来的冲突中,还是有可能利用岛礁群复杂的地理、海文条件加以利用,进行隐蔽机动和攻击。

第四,岛礁海域作战最为核心的挑战是投送问题,既包括后勤保障,也包括力量投送。由于南海冲突爆发的时机很可能是难以把握的,而小规模冲突伴随的军事行动也可以隐蔽突然的形式发生,加之岛礁周边缺乏战场纵深,速战速决将是作战的主要模式。这便带来投送需求的急迫性,要求很高的应急投送能力。基于目前中国在南海的军事存在,在未来的军事冲突中还无法做到兵力投送和后勤保障方面的游刃有余。

事实上,由于以更积极的方式应对南海争端,加之战场建设的推进,中国在未来南海冲突中对大后方的依赖将有增无减。

因此,这便使得从战略后方进行跨海远程兵力、火力、后勤物资投送的任务成为重中之重,岛礁储存条件不好,这便要求具备海空远程持续投送能力。岛礁的改扩建只是开始,如何理顺管理体系、加强应急反应能力需要时间积累的。

若有一战,将以突发、快速的海空冲突为主

如前所述,岛礁改扩建在平时和战时能够增强战略信号可信度,加强威慑能力,提高战场感知能力,增加和强化火力、机动、后勤、情报节点。虽然前面提到了不同情况的南海冲突与中国所面临的可能挑战,但在可预见的未来,南海战事不大可能以大规模冲突或岛屿攻防战的形式出现,而将主要以突发、快速的海空冲突为主。

在低烈度水面舰艇冲突中,根据休斯模型和齐射方程的计算,无论中国面对的是孱弱的菲律宾还是小而精的美军编队,中国都具有一定优势。岛礁改扩建后的战场环境如果运用得当,将能够提高中国水面编队战位的捕捉,以及攻击航路规划的合理性。除了战场环境本身,改扩建的岛礁可以在低烈度水面冲突中提供额外的火力补充,以及最为重要的战场态势感知能力。

056对SSC齐射模型,低烈度水面舰艇冲突(祁昊天计算、做图)

054Avs 2 SSC_齐射模型,低烈度水面舰艇冲突_祁昊天计算、做图

无论以何种模型或想定下进行兵棋推演,如果我们假定南海冲突将以突然、快速的方式爆发(及终止)的话,情报侦察监视(ISR)能力都可能是冲突中的胜负手。日趋复杂的南海海区环境和潜在军事斗争形势,对信息情报保障的要求极高。但目前中国的海上观察预警探测力量尚未完善,这不仅要求岛礁进行硬件建设,更需要从南海方向总体ISR力量结构的规划与配置上进行调整。

中国未来岛礁战场建设完成后可以综合使用岛礁观通站,实现多站台、多手段联测引导,提高引导可靠性。需要对分散的观通站、水声站,机动雷达与地波超视距雷达站进行整合,海空天平台组网,军地设备结合,不同频段与体制装备交错配置,情报管理关系需要得到理顺,这样预警探测资源才能得到有效整合,信息传递与融合便可得到增强。装备和部队配置到位的同时(如在华阳礁等),还需要优化指挥方式、固化引导程序,缩短反应时间,这对于南海存在的突发性冲突是极为重要的。

华阳2016年1月(出处:AMTI)。

各个方向都存在遇敌可能,机场网络、ISR能力、装备要求极高

不过,应对突发性冲突的能力建设仅靠岛礁改扩建是无法实现的。如跑道建设可以提高机场网络布局水平,但是首要问题还是装备。

目前在南部战区,中国海空力量尚缺乏有力的预警机队,相应的空警系列型号(KJ-500)尚未成熟。而由于南海广袤的范围、深入海区、各个方向都存在遭遇敌方目标的可能,已用于北方国土防空的“平衡木”预警机不适合在南海执行任务。

随着相应环视能力、多目标处理能力更强的型号装备部署,南海的岛礁机场布局才能够发挥起真正的作用。

制空权的确保是南海冲突的重要内容,而由于中国海空军陆基主战装备在南海上空的滞空时间和战场覆盖并不充裕,而海军舰载固定翼机队的规模与作战能力尚处在初级阶段,岛礁机场网络的出现与完善对于提高制空权及其后的空对海、空对地打击能力都极为重要。不过这里存在着和ISR能力类似的问题,即岛礁改扩建可以提高空中覆盖能力(在解决地勤维护的前提下),但是加大对菲越等国的战术优势、与美国形成战场均势,装备性能的针对性和量的保证才是基本。南海的平时巡逻与战时驰援任务都需要低速性能好、滞空时间长的双发重型战机,从这一意义说,海航换装J-11B与中国向俄罗斯进口苏-35或许都有相应的考虑。

反潜,是中国在南海未来冲突中可能面临的另一个巨大挑战。不同的力量对比计算与兵棋推演都显示,美国的海下力量是对中国最大的威胁之一。

反潜战便是水声战,南海岛礁的改扩建可以提高全域ISR能力,这其中便包括对潜艇的侦察与跟踪。但除此之外,南海的反潜作战基础还是南海海区本身的气候与水文特点,及其对水声条件造成的影响。

这里要谈到的重要概念是声速梯度,即声速随海水深度增加而增加(或下降),增加的情况为正梯度,下降为负梯度。由于南海海区全年气温水温较高,且季节性的温差变化不大,声速梯度的变化主要不受季节变化,而是昼夜温差。总体来说,南海海区的午后由于日照使海面水温上升,存在强负梯度层;而清晨则由于海面水温随着夜晚蒸发降低,形成下层水温较高的正梯度。在正梯度存在时,海面的声反射能力好,较易发挥水面舰只的拖曳线阵声呐探测距离,而存在负梯度层时,则需要将声呐放置深度加大,以取得较好的听测效果。南海这种负梯度的出现也就是所谓的“午后效应”,不利于拖曳声呐在浅水区的搜索作业。而此时,正是有利于潜艇隐蔽和其艇载声纳的工作的时段。在未来南海可能的反潜作战中,需要注意这一时间窗口。

结论:岛礁改扩建本身并非胜负手,南海军事斗争是体系的对抗

总之,南海岛礁的改扩建,在平时与战时均能够加强中国在潜在冲突中的战术应变能力,并在此基础上提高战略灵活度。具体而言,可以增强战略信号可信度,加强威慑能力,提高战场感知能力,增加和强化火力、机动、后勤、情报节点。跑道建设是工程量最大、最引人注目的改扩建内容,在制空权的争夺上,新的机场网络将带来十分显著的效果。美国兰德公司在其2015年关于中美空中冲突模拟的结果也可以间接证明这一点。这份报告没有计算岛礁改扩建带来的变化,但是根据其对比台湾与南海两种想定下美军需投入的空中力量,南海岛礁的改扩建无疑将使得战场环境向着更有利于中国的方向发展。

但是制空权仅是岛礁改扩建军事作用的一方面,且相对于岛礁改扩建在平时能力的提高,评价战时的军事作用时需要更多考虑岛礁群的地理、气候、战场环境约束以及不同作战任务的特殊需要。岛礁的改扩建其本身并非胜负手,南海的军事斗争是体系的对抗。

南海岛礁建设报告索引

(一)序言:南沙岛礁建设报告:岛礁建设与美国闯阵 http://pit-ifeng-com.wucaipiaotd68.cn/dacankao/nanshadaojiao/1.shtml

(二)南沙岛礁建设报告:各国南海军力对比 http://pit-ifeng-com.wucaipiaotd68.cn/dacankao/meijunyoushi/1.shtml http://pit-ifeng-com.wucaipiaotd68.cn/dacankao/haozhuangbei/1.shtml

(三)南沙岛礁建设报告:岛礁建设的法理正当性 http://pit-ifeng-com.wucaipiaotd68.cn/dacankao/kuodaosanli/1.shtml http://pit-ifeng-com.wucaipiaotd68.cn/dacankao/hefakaoyan/1.shtml

(四)南沙岛礁建设报告:岛礁扩建后的军事功能评述 http://pit-ifeng-com.wucaipiaotd68.cn/dacankao/qianliyan2/1.shtml

(五)南沙岛礁建设报告:美国眼中的南沙岛礁军事价值

凤凰大参考专题文章为本栏目特约,转载请务必注明来源及作者姓名,违者必究。

祁昊天

乔治城大学国际关系专业博士候选人,本科毕业于北京大学,并分别于约翰·霍普金斯大学、宾夕法尼亚大学获得军事战略学、国际经济学和政治学方向硕士学位。曾在国际战略研究中心(CSIS)实习,曾为麻省理工学院访问学者,目前为位于华盛顿的Aetos Strategy & Advisory INC.研究部主任。研究及发表内容主要包括国际军事危机博弈与管控、战略与技术战术的关联、军工产业与军火贸易。

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